Saturday, May 23, 2020
Experimental Psychology Experimental psychology is a sub-discipline in psychology that focuses on understanding the human behavior resulted from life experience through research and experimental studies (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Therefore, experimental psychologists approve or disapprove psychological beliefs through research. Experimental psychologists hypothesize the issues related to psychological subjects, and then conduct studies to find out the truth about their hypotheses (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). On the other hand, when some experimental psychologists study different psychological phenomena, the others devote their time to find the answers to one complex issue (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Experimental psychologists usually work in private or university research centers, or for government agencies; however, most experimental psychologists who work in academic centers usually teach a few courses in the universities as well (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology ,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Most individuals who studied psychology are knowledgeable enough to work in the subfield of experimental psychology, as they have taken many courses focusing on research methods, statistics, and math (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). For that matter, the educational path for most experimental psychologists starts with obtaining a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in psychology, and then apply for a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s program in psychology (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Some individuals decide to take some time off from school andShow MoreRelatedExperimental Psychology1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Research Paper Requirement For this research requirement I chose three different experiments to examine thoroughly. The first of these experiments came from the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. The study done in this journal was an examination of orthographic learning and self-teaching in a bilingual and biliterate context. The aim of the study was to figure out the advantages and/or disadvantages of a student learning a native language when they are either monolingual, bilingual, orRead MoreThe Father Of Experimental Psychology Wilhelm Wundt ( 1832-1920 ) And The Founder Of Behaviourism John1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe father of experimental psychology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) and the founder of behaviourism John. B Watson both have opposing and corresponding views on psychology. In this essay I will compare and contrast both concepts which will include experimental psychology, introspection, operant and classical conditioning, immediate conscious, objective measurement and lab experiments. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) was a German psychologist who wanted to study and examine human immediate conscious experienceRead MoreScope of Experimental Psychology2276 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesto a field. EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: Experimental psychology is the most important branch of psychology. The credit for establishing psychology on a scientific basis goes to experimental method. This method is now being used more and more in psychological studies. SCOPE OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: The scope of Experimental Psychology is widening with the invention of new tools and instruments for experiments. Therefore, it is in the fitness of things that experimental psychology constitutes compulsoryRead MoreExperimental Psychology Proposal1958 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSignificance Ã ±= .05 df= n1 + n2 -2 = 15 + 15 - 2 = 28 t .05= 2.05 * Decision rule: If the t-computed value is greater than or beyond the critical value, Reject null hypothesis. * Solution: Classical Music(Experimental) | Rock Music(Control) | x1 | x12 | x2 | x22 | 18 | 324 | 17 | 289 | 25 | 625 | 12 | 144 | 15 | 225 | 14 | 196 | 20 | 400 | 19 | 361 | 19 | 361 | 23 | 529 | 14 | 196 | 16 | 256 | 30 | 900 | 16 | 256 | 34 | 1156 | 8 | 64 | 27Read MoreThe New Psychology: Early Physiological and Experimental Psychology and Structuralism1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe New Psychology: Early Physiological and Experimental Psychology And Structuralism Psy5102-8 Dr. Kornfeld By: Janelle Jumpp Table of Contents 1. What do you consider to be the proper subject matter of psychology? 2. What methods should psychology use to approach the subjects it studies? 3. What do you expect will be your most lasting contribution to the field of psychology? 4. What do you consider to be an appropriate role for the field of psychologyRead MoreThe General Experimental Psychology Master Essay781 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshard-working student, I am looking for a graduate school that will challenge my abilities and help me to grow even further. The General Experimental Psychology MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Program at the University of Colorado-Colorado Springs (UCCS) seems like it would do just that. My ambition and self-motivation had led me to graduate in three years with a double major in Psychology (B.S.) and Sociology (B.A.) with a minor in statistics. At Olivet I have received solid academic training and hands on experience. TheRead MoreThe Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology874 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexample, is known to be a useful tool in negotiations. Indeed, in the past few years, researchers have been learning more about when and how to deploy anger productively. Consider a forthcoming paper in the November issue of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Researchers tested the effectiveness of expressing anger in three types of negotiations: those that are chiefly cooperative (say, starting a business with a partner), chiefly competitive (dissolving a shared business) or balanced betweenRead MoreExperimental Psychology Stroop Effect2268 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages we predict an interaction between congruency and task; we expect that the Stroop effect will be larger for typing colors than for typing words. Method Participants Twenty-one undergraduate, male and female students were recruited from an experimental lab class at the City University of New York Brooklyn College. Materials and Design In this within subjects design, we used a 2 (Congruency: Congruent vs. Incongruent) x 2 (Task Type: Naming color vs. Naming word) factorial; the dependentRead MoreExperimental Social Psychology - Strengths and Weaknesses1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOutline the main features of experimental social psychology and consider the influences that led to its emergence. What do you think are its strengths and weaknesses? Psychology was originally a branch of Philosopy, according to Hollway (2007). As more emphasis was placed on following scientific methods and principles, psychologists began using laboratory experiments to carry out research into individual behaviours. Experiments were considered to be more objective when considering individualsRead MoreExperimental Research : A Long Tradition Of Psychology And Education1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesINTRODUCTION Experimental research has had a long tradition in psychology and education. The usage of experimental approaches over the past 40 years had been influenced by developments in research practices. The experimental method formally surfaced in educational psychology around the turn of the century, with the classic studies by Thorndike and Woodworth on transfer (Cronbach, 1957). Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as psychology, medicine, sociology, biology, and so on
Monday, May 18, 2020
Liquid nitrogen is a form of the element nitrogen thats cold enough to exist in a liquid state and is used for many cooling and cryogenic applications. Here are some facts about liquid nitrogen and crucial information about handling it safely. Liquid Nitrogen Facts Liquid nitrogen is the liquefied form of the element nitrogen thats produced commercially by the fractional distillation of liquid air.Ã Like nitrogen gas, it consists of two nitrogen atoms sharing covalent bonds (N2).Sometimes liquid nitrogen is denoted as LN2, LN, or LIN.A United Nations Number (UN or UNID) is a four-digit code used to identifyÃ flammableÃ and harmful chemicals. Liquid nitrogen is identified as UN number 1,977.At normal pressure, liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K (Ã¢Ëâ195.8Ã ° C or Ã¢Ëâ320.4Ã ° F).The liquid-to-gas expansion ratio of nitrogen is 1:694, which means liquid nitrogen boils to fill a volume with nitrogen gas very quickly.Nitrogen is non-toxic, odorless, and colorless. It is relatively inert and is not flammable.Nitrogen gas is slightly lighter than air when it reaches room temperature. It is slightly soluble in water.Nitrogen was first liquefied on April 15, 1883, by Polish physicistsÃ Zygmunt WrÃ ³blewski and Karol Olszewski.Liquid nitroge n is stored in special insulated containers that are vented to prevent pressure buildup. Depending on the design of the Dewar flask, it can be stored for hours or for up to a few weeks.LN2 displays the Leidenfrost effect, which means it boils so rapidly that it surrounds surfaces with an insulating layer of nitrogen gas. This is why spilled nitrogen droplets skitter across a floor. Liquid Nitrogen Safety choja / Getty Images When working with liquid nitrogen, taking safety precautions is paramount: Liquid nitrogen is cold enough to cause severe frostbite on contact with living tissue. You must wear proper safety gear when handling liquid nitrogen to prevent contact or inhalation of the extremely cold vapor. Cover and insulate skin to avoid exposure.Because it boils so rapidly, the phase transition from liquid to gas can generate a lot of pressure very quickly. Do not enclose liquid nitrogen in a sealed container, as this may result in it bursting or an explosion.Adding large quantities of nitrogen to the air reduces the relative amount of oxygen, which may result in an asphyxiation risk. Cold nitrogen gas is heavier than air, so the risk is greatest near the ground. Use liquid nitrogen in a well-ventilated area.Liquid nitrogen containers may accumulate oxygen that is condensed from the air. As the nitrogen evaporates, theres a risk of violent oxidation of organic matter. Liquid Nitrogen Uses Liquid nitrogen has many uses, mainly based on its cold temperature and low reactivity. Examples of common applications include: The freezing and transporting of food productsThe cryopreservation of biological samples, such as sperm, eggs, and animal genetic samplesUse as a coolant for superconductors, vacuum pumps, and other materials and equipmentUse in cryotherapy to remove skin abnormalitiesThe shielding of materials from oxygen exposureThe quick freezing of water or pipes to allow work on them when valves are unavailableA source of extremely dry nitrogen gasThe branding of cattleThe molecular gastronomy preparation of unusual foods and beveragesThe cooling of materials for easier machining or fracturingScience projects, including making liquid nitrogen ice cream, creating nitrogen fog, and flash-freezing flowers and subsequently watching them shatter when tapped onto a hard surface.
Monday, May 11, 2020
The way that diasporic audiences use media products to give them a connection to their country of origin has been a topic of research for many scholars. The increasing ability to stream content online allows people to keep the same routine in watching content and to watch content which they can relate to and see themselves reflected in, often unlike the content on in their new home country. Online news allows people to keep up with current events and look out for events that may affect the ones they care about and improvements in communications technology allow people to connect directly with the people they love more effectively. Media provides a way for diasporic audiences to find their sense of self and identity in a country where they may not have a lot of representation. Previous models of looking at diasporic audiences have been helpful in allowing us to see the positive impacts that media can have, however they still continue to look at these audiences and their lives as the Ã ¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a step backward in the diverse societies we live in. Sinclair and Cunningham in Go with the Flow: Diasporas and the Media, discuss the way diasporic audiences are often categorized by the scattering of people away from their home countries, while still maintaining strong connections to them (18). These people may resist assimilation into their Ã¢â¬ËhostÃ¢â¬â¢ culture and because of this they may feel marginalized by the culture they have moved into (Sinclair and Cunningham, 19). TheseShow MoreRelatedMedia s Influence On The Media1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdisplayed in the mass media is conditioned by wealth and power, so as a result of the concentration of power and the official censorship done by the government and corporate sources; the media follows the ideas of the elite. In order to deliver messages that support the eliteÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, the media goes through five different filters that determine the information presented, this are ownership of media, funding, sourcing, flak, and fear. First, when referring to the ownership of media, it is importantRead MoreThe Media s Influence On Media Essay1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLusby English composition 12/1/2016 The Media s Influence Ã Can the media really persuade you into thinking a way about a person you have not even meet? The media can make influence you into thinking a certain way about some and also influence a choice that you could have to make about them that could change their life forever. To prove this I have researched into articles that could help me prove that the media can influence these things. First the media in the form of television can give you aRead MoreMedia s Influence On Media2111 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagestoday is communicated through media. Media is the most powerful and influential force in the country. The media are powerful agents of socialization and they set the standard that majority follow. The power giving to American media has allowed them to be very effective using propaganda as strategy, the media tend to say they serve to relieve social conflicts into minimum. We clearly see that the media promote social conflicts by separating class. The image that media has created in the mind of massesRead MoreMedia s Influence On The Media892 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard not to come across some form of media, whether that is an advertisement on a roadway, a commercial on the television, or even an ad on the portable games you play on your phone. The average 8-18-year-old experiences about 7.5 hours of some form of media a day.  Out of the 24 hours in a day over a quarter of it is spent looking at or listening to advertisements for products, the news, video games, television, movies, music, books, and the internet. A common way toRead MoreMedia s Influence On The Media1977 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespushes their political view. News viewers tend to be oblivious when it comes to bias in the media because they would rather hear what they believe is right. There are many ways to find truth in journalism that everyone needs to be aware of for example, going to more than one source and conducting a SMELL test. Biased media has made a big impact on itÃ¢â¬â¢s viewers, creating a big division between the two sides. Media plays a big part on how people get everyday news, but ultimately, it is up to the viewerRead MoreMedia s Influence On The Media1986 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWe are a world that revolves around our media outlets. This is because we depend on them to give to us the information that we need to be able to live our daily lives. Whether it is the news on politics or just events that are happening around your area. The real question though is has news changed? And the follow up question to that would be; how do historians think news has changed? The news media has changed throughout history because of the rise of technology. It is now possible to reach peopleRead MoreMedia s Influence On Media1928 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages V. New Media In the course of the most recent couple of decades, the media scene has changed drastically. The most essential change is from an old media model of television to another media model of narrowcasting. TV alludes to media speaking to the overall population and is exemplified by system TV, radio, and daily papers. Narrowcasting, made conceivable by television networks, Internet, and satellite radio, is focused to particular gatherings of people. The new media have various essentialRead MoreMedia s Influence On Media1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial media publicizes a substantial amount of messages about identity and acceptable ways to express gender, sexuality and ones lifestyle, but at the same time, the viewers have their own differing feelings about the issues. The media may suggest certain feelings and actions, but the audiences feelings can never overpower self-expression completely. The media portrays certain things because it is what is being accepted. Neither parties, these being the media and its audience, have full power overRead MoreMedia s Influence On Media1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescentury, mass media became widely recognized. In a period of mass availability, people today have entry to more media outlets than ever before. According to media scholar Jean Kilbourne,Ã¢â¬Å"the average American is exposed to over 3,000 advertisements a day and watches three yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of television ads over the course of a lifetimeÃ¢â¬ (back cover). It is all around us, from the shows we watch on television, the music we listen to on the radio, and to the books and magazines we read each day. Media is the numberRead MoreMedia s Influence On The Media Essay1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMass media has a very influential part in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Consisting of radio broadcasting, books, the Internet, and television they allow information and entertainment to travel at a fast pace as well to a vast audience. This vast majority of information can easily manipulate and or persuade people to have certain stereotypes on specific genders. TV commercials are one of the most influential structures in the media. Looking back 20 to 30 years, stereotypes were clearly welcomed on TV and in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"I tooÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes and Ã¢â¬Å"DreamsÃ¢â¬ by Nikki Giovanni are poems concerning conformity and rebellion. I too was published in the 1926 volume of poetry by Langston Hughes. It is about an African American man, who is Ã¢â¬Å"either a slave, a free man in the Jim Crow South, or even a domestic servantÃ¢â¬ , that conforms to the ideas and traditions between black and white people. He does this, while quietly waiting for the day that he will not have to conform or Ã¢â¬Å"stay in the kitchenÃ¢â¬ anymore. Dreams is about a black girl who dreams to be famous singer when she is a child. However, as she grows older, and starts to understand the labels and roles black girls are put in in society at the time, she conforms to the idea of settling down and letting herÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The speaker in I, too does not conform without question, because he knows that to conform and Ã¢â¬Å"eat in the kitchenÃ¢â¬ (line13) is to live a lie. However he does no t tell people or express out in the open that that is what he believes, he goes against the norm silently which is sometimes more powerful than doing it loudly. This is what African Americans and other minorities had to decide in a time when white people were perceived to better and more powerful in American society. I, too and Dreams are both poems that cover an issue that was happening for a very long time in America. The issue that African Americans and other minorities should conform to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s unfair box that they have put African Americans in terms of what they could do and be with their lives, or they should not conform because they know that it is wrong. This way of conformity began with the slaves. The slave owners, who were white, were perceived to be better than the slaves, who were black. Slave owners were richer, and perceived to be smarter than the Ã¢â¬Å"unruly beastsÃ¢â¬ that were African slaves. This belief changed and evolved like any other belief. In more recent decades, after the Civil War, African Americans and other minorities were thought to be second class citizens compared to white people. African Americans could not do or be certain things, like famous singers, because it would beShow MoreRelatedBiographical and Historical Approach to Langston Hughes Dream Bo ogie1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBiographical and Historical Approach to Langston Hughes Dream Boogie Michelle Cooks ENG Teacher January 30, 2012 A biographical or historical approach attempt to measure how much an authors life or history has influenced their writings. Most of the time, writings are strengthened when the author writes from a biographical or historical angle, and the importance of their history becomes significant when it is used to create characters that express its values and examines trends that occurRead MoreAlice Malsenior6001 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesand revolt, trying to dominate southern society. Throughout the decade, black fears heightened as a result of brutal attacks from groups like the KKK and other gangs. In this time period, the KKK was experiencing its second resurgence since World War I and the popularity of lynching increased (Brennan). The inhumane morals of whites who lynched blacks was publicized in newspapers by journalists such as Ida B. Wells, who additionally worked for the Anti-Lynching Bureau (Brennan). It was no surprise
Seaport is n very few stores; therefore they are an exclusive distributor. 3. In return for providing an exclusive, what marketing demands do exclusive brands require of Seaport? They will run an ad or put items in the windows for a limited time. We will write a custom essay sample on How many SkiÃ¢â¬â¢s do they stock? or any similar topic only for you Order Now 4. What is the responsibility of the merchandising team? What do they do? The merchandising team is responsible for the relationships with the vendors. They are the ones who get the vendors to join the Seaport family. They also help with what stores they will go to, marketing programs and how he brand will grow. . What is the responsibility of an inventory strategist? What do they do? The inventory strategists are responsible for the quantity of the product. 6. What is the responsibility of the distributor? The distributor places the items in every sellers doors, and keeping up with all stock levels. 7. How many brands does Seaport sell? 150_ How many SkiÃ¢â¬â¢s do they stock? Over 1 0,000 8. What are some challenges Seaport faces in keeping all brands in stock without cookouts? Can brands keep up with the growth rate; they may not be able to produce enough products as they need. 9. What are some metrics they keep track of daily? Every time a product is sold it goes through the POS system and is automatically taken out of inventory. They can pull up: the average dollar sale, how much they are selling to a client, and the units per transaction they are selling to a client. They can pull up, at any time of the day, how much volume that is currently in the store. How to cite How many SkiÃ¢â¬â¢s do they stock?, Papers
The School Based Assessment section of Caribbean Studies accounts for 40% of the final grade. This section of the paper is internally assessed and externally moderated. This section of the examination gives candidates the chance to maximize their performance on the final examination. To this end, candidates are encouraged to explore possible topics to choose from the syllabus. At the back of the syllabus (pgs. 42-44) there are a number of broad topics that can be used to explore in the school base assessment. Beginning the Research Process 1. First look at your immediate surroundings for issues you would like to discuss, or better yet, choose an issue you feel passionately about. In identifying a research problem one should keep the following in mind: * It should be of interest to you; * It should be within your expertise; * It should be worthwhile or significant; * It should be Ã¢â¬Ëdo-ableÃ¢â¬â¢; * It should be manageable. (Source: Leacock, Coreen et al, (2009). Research Methods for Inexperienced Researchers. Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. . The next step is to gather as much information as possible on the topic (literature). There are several sources where you can find information; you can first start by looking at some books, journals, etc. In the age of the electronic media, the internet is the most popular place you may want to look. There may be a number of persons in your community you may want to talk to on the subject matter. Depending on the nature of the study, you may be fortunate enough to visit a website based on the subject you may be doing research on. Ensure that for the subject matter you have chosen there is enough material around for you to build your research. If this is not the case, do not give up, choose another topic. 3. After you have decided on a broad topic that you would like to research, you need to start the more difficult part of the paper which is narrowing the topic. Very often students have very interesting topics but they fail to obtain a comfortable grade due to the fact that their topic would have been too wide. Owing to the limitation on length, students must be very selective as to how they choose their area so as to maximize on the word limit. Please note that candidates would be penalized for exceeding the word limit. 4. The next step is to formulate a PROBLEM STATEMENT. The problem statement identifies the intent of purpose of the research (Leacock et al, 2009). This process involves thinking, discarding and re-formulating the problem so that it meets the criteria necessary for a researchable problem (Caribbean Studies, Study Guide, 2004). Therefore, the problem statement refers to a logical and concise sentence which expresses the topic that the researcher is investigating. 5. Below are examples of problem statements. Please note how the topics are narrowed: a. The economic effects of increased gang-related activities in the McKnight community in St. Kitts. b. The effects of the rise in the pre-school population upon the pre-school system in Charlestown, Nevis. c. Rastafarian children in the Basseterre area face unfair discrimination in school. OR d. Do Rastafarian children who attend school in Basseterre face discrimination in school? e. There is a significant relationship between the age of voters and their preference of political party, [ in St. Kitts] , ( Leacock et al, 2009) A well written problem statement usually identifies the variables, in which you are interested, the specific relationship between those variables that you are examining, and where possible, the types of participants involved (Leacock et al, 2009, pg. 26). Note in the above topics the focus is very specific. First of all the geographic location is identified and a very specific area of the topic is chosen. The possibilities are limitless; the student with some guidance from the lecturer can be as creative as they wish in doing the topic. 6. Below are some examples of topics that would be too wide to be examined: a. An examination of crime in the Caribbean. b. Religion in Basseterre. c. The impact of the Mass Media on St. Kitts The first problem with topics in the above is that they are too wide; the student undertaking topics worded like this would never complete the research. In the limited time space given they would not produce a paper of an acceptable standard. How can these topics be corrected? Let us use Ã¢â¬Å"Religion in BasseterreÃ¢â¬ as an example. To correct this topic in order for it to be used as School-Based Assessment we first need to decide on which religion we would be examining, after which, we need to choose a specific area in Basseterre we wish to examine. The religion, for example, that we can explore is Rastafarianism and the location, for example, in Basseterre that we can research on is New Town. We can even be more specific and examine what area of Rastafarianism we would want to explore; for this purpose, we can probably examine women in Rastafarianism. Now that we have all the specific areas, we can now structure our topic. The topic should read as followsÃ¢â¬ An examination of Rastafarian women in the New Town CommunityÃ¢â¬ . The topic now has a narrowed focus, hence, the student can now proceed to select their information from which they could have gathered to fit their topic. FORMAT OF THE RESEARCH PAPER a. Length: 2000-2,500 words. b. Structure: Cover Page ( Title , Name, Date, Registration number, Territory, Centre Number); c. Acknowledgements d. Table of Contents: i. Introduction and Purpose of Research ii. Literature Review iii. Data Collection Sources and Methodology iv. Presentation of Data and Analysis of Data v. Discussion of Findings vi. Conclusion/Limitations of Research/ Recommendations vii. Bibliography viii. Appendices The Structure of the Research Paper Candidates are strongly advised to use the structure and sequence outlined in the syllabus to prepare their study (page 35). The Introduction The introduction is the face of the paper since this is what the reader would see first, therefore the candidate should make a good first impression. (An introduction is the opening of the paper that introduces the reader to the topic addressed by the paper and why it is significant. ) The introduction should be focused, interesting and linked to the topic. A weak introduction can turn off the reader. What then should be in the introduction? The introduction should have several parts which are as follows: a. Background of Study. This section of the introduction would provide information about the topic that would assist the reader in understanding the context in which the topic is being discussed, for example using the topic we choose previously, Ã¢â¬Å"An examination of Rastafarianism women in the New Town communityÃ¢â¬ we may wish to discuss the location of New Town, the development of Rastafarianism in the community, and also any significant or outstanding issue that would link Rastafarianism to that community. We can also look at the socio-economic background of the community and the age of the community. b. Problem Statement. The problem statement identified the intent or purpose of the research. Formulating one calls for much thought on your part because this statement guides what data you collect, from whom you collect it, how you analyse it and how you interpret the results of your analysis. A good problem statement tells the reader what the focus of your research is, and clues them to the types of questions that you are going to try to answer. A well written problem statement usually identified the variables, in which you are interested, the specific relationship between those variables that you are examining, and where possible, the types of participants involved. Remember each statement must be a grammatically stated sentence that is clear and concise. (Leacock et al, 2009) c. Statement of the Problem. The Statement of the Problem is an opportunity for the candidate to provide background information on how they identified the problem as a synopsis of what the research will entail. A good statement of the problem elaborates and extends the problem statement. ) d. Purpose of the Research. The purpose of the research clearly outlines why the candidates choose to write on the topic, what about the topic or the issue which interested the candidate. Some students may wish to examine this section by doing some research questions. e. The Educational Value of the Research. This section follows next. As the title implies this sect ion seeks to describe what educational importance this study has for the candidate and the wider reading public. The student may wish to indicate that the project enables them to develop research skills, the topic chosen would be providing the general community with information about Rastafarianism women in Irish Town. f. Definition of Technical Terms used in the study. This section is the last in the introduction which most students take for granted, but this section is very important to the study. Candidates are required to define any technical terms used in the study, also the meaning of the words used in the tile or topic. N. B Candidates are instructed to ensure that they include all sections indicated in the above in the Introduction of the School-Based Assessment. Literature Review [A] Literature review summarizes and evaluates a body of writings about a specific topic. In general, a literature review has two key elements. First, it should concisely summarize the findings or claims that have emerged from prior research efforts on a subject. Second, a literature review should reach a conclusion about how accurate and complete that knowledge is; it should present your considered judgments about whats right, whats wrong, whats inconclusive, and whats missing in the existing literature. Conducting a literature review can have several benefits: i. It can give you a general overview of a body of research with which you are not familiar. ii. It can reveal what has already been done well, so that you do not waste time reinventing the wheel. iii. It can give you new ideas you can use in your own research. iv. It can help you determine where there are problems or flaws in existing research. v. It can enable you to place your research in a larger context, so that you can show what new conclusions might result from your research. (Knopf, 2006). The literature review places the research clearly in context. Also, analyze all quotations. Do not cut and paste information- (does not allow for the flow of the argument). Candidates must also correctly cite the work used in this section. For example, if you are using a text by Eric Williams the name of the text should be underlined and the year the text was published and if possible the page, if it is a direct quotation in brackets. The citation should look like the following below: Eric Williams (1977) in his text Capitalism and Slavery argued that slavery built industrialization and industrialization in turn destroyed slavery. NB. Candidates should use a variety of sources (books, journals, internet, television documentary, newspapers, magazines, leaflets/ brochures from UN, UNESCO, CARICOM, PAHO, etc. ) Data Collection Sources and Methodology For some time this section seems to be the most difficult to grasp by candidates. The Data Collection Sources are a critique of the sources from which the data was obtained for the study. This section demands that the student exam the strengths and the weaknesses of the sources. Hence, for example, the candidate should state whether or not the sources contained any biases, and give reasons to why the sources may be biased, or the student may discuss if the documents / sources are credible or not and likewise say why it may be or may be not credible. Methodology The methodology is a bit more straightforward. This section is used if the candidate chose to collect his/her own data (primary data). This section should describe how the data was collected, the specific time the data was collected, the sample group from which the data was collected. Presentation and Analysis Data The presentation is very basic and most studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance is exceptional in this area. Students who have access to the electronic media use many creative ways of presenting their data. Whatever graphs /tables/charts are used must be well labeled and clearly outlined. The section is not merely restricted to graphs only. It must also be noted that while graphs should be used these graphs must be of various kinds. The analysis of data demands that the candidates effectively and efficiently analyze the data they would have collected. Marks are often lost in this section because students merely describe what the graphs or tables are showing; this is in no way enough, and candidates MUST give reasons for what is shown in the tables and on the graphs. For example, a graph might show that in May of 2001 there were 5 road fatalities, in June of that same year there were 20 and in December, 25. It would not be enough in the analysis of data to merely state that the road fatalities increased steadily over the period. The candidates must move on further to state why there might have been increases in these road fatalities. From the data candidates might want to suggest that since December is the period for Carnival on St. Kitts, the increased uses of the road around this time might increase the chances of road fatalities. The previous example of analysis is the type which this section is demanding. CandidateÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to do so would result in a poor grade. NB: Analysis of Data MUST be placed under each graph/ table/chart. Discussion of Findings This section can be very difficult for the candidate who has failed to properly research his/her topic. The Discussion is fairly simple; this section demands a comparison between the Literature Review and what the candidates would have discovered from their research. The students who failed to effectively research material to obtain a proper Literature Review would find that their Discussion of Findings would be weak. Candidates should also discuss the implications of their findings. For example, the student should be able to state what their findings suggest. Conclusion/ Limitations and Recommendations Conclusion The conclusion is the summary of the main findings and the present implications, and how the findings relate to previous studies on the problem. Tips for a strong Conclusion * Bring out the significance of your research paper. Show how you have brought closure to the research problem, and point out remaining gaps in knowledge by suggesting issues for further research. Deal with issues at the level of the whole paper rather than with issues at the level of a paragraph. * Make the significance brought out in the conclusion congruent with the argument of your paper. Do not oversell or undersell the significance of your paper. The conclusion cannot reach any farther than the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument. The conclusion is the place to put the final, proper perspective on the paper as a whole. * Bring closure to the entire paper, not only by summarizing the arguments, but also by bringing out the significance of the paper. Avoid using terms related to specific elements of the paperÃ¢â¬âlook at the paper as a whole and pull it all together in the conclusion. * Make the conclusion sell a worthwhile paper to interested readers. Exercise integrity in your conclusionÃ¢â¬âdo not exaggerate the conclusion to bring strength to a weak paper. There should be a strong correlation between the arguments in your paper and your stated significance(s) in the conclusion. In the case of a thesis or dissertation, readers will likely turn first to the conclusion. Do not let your readers get motivated by your conclusion to read the rest of the documentÃ¢â¬âonly to experience disappointment. * Use key terms, concepts and phrases from the introduction and body of the paperÃ¢â¬âbut do not just repeat them. Use them to bring out the new insight gained from your research. The conclusion should provide more than a flat-footed re-statement of the [research] statement articulated in the introductionÃ¢â¬âit should take the entire paper a step ahead toward a new level of insight on the research problem. * Make the tone of the conclusion match the tone of the rest of the paper. For most of your Ã¢â¬ ¦ papers, keep the tone seriousÃ¢â¬âomit jokes and anecdotes from the conclusion. In the context of an academic argument, humor is generally inappropriate and could seriously detract from your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility. * Write the conclusion at a level of specificity/generality that matches the introduction. Do not use the conclusion to summarize the previous paragraphÃ¢â¬ârather, pull the entire paper together and make its significance clear. A concluding chapter should draw conclusions for each major issues raised in the document. For any type of paper, do not overreach the conclusionÃ¢â¬âmake statements that can be fully supported by your evidence. * Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion. The conclusion signals readers that the writer will point out the significance of the paper at this point, and bring the entire paper to a clear and definite end. Just as the minister should never introduce a new point in the concluding remarks of a sermon, the writer should not introduce another point in the conclusion. Expecting the end, readers will be disappointedÃ¢â¬âor annoyedÃ¢â¬âto find yet more new information. * Put your best writing skills into the conclusion Never allow the first draft to stand as the final productÃ¢â¬ârevise the conclusion again and again until its integrity is practically unassailable. (Source: TIPS FOR WRITING A STRONG CONCLUSION Barry W. Hamilton, Ph. D. Northeastern Seminary (Rochester, New York) (http://acc. oberts. edu/NEmployees/Hamilton_Barry/TIPS%20FOR%20WRITING%20A%20STRONG%20CONCLUSION. htm) Limitations All studies have limitations. It is imperative that the candidates restrict their discussion to limitations related to the research problem under investigation. Mentions must be made of some factors identified to be limitations of the research. For example, the size of the sample, type of sampl e used, lack of available data, cultural bias, time frame of the study, access etc. NB: Do not list concerns, explain fully. Recommendations This section of the research the candidates should clearly express their recommendations-focusing on what more can be done in the area of study. The recommendations must be related to the issue/ problem being studied. Reference / Bibliography At the end of the study candidates should have a list of scholarly works cited in alphabetical order by author. The bibliography provides the reader with the sources of the information.
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Measurement Practical Guidance and Implementation. Answer: Introduction Increasing number of accounting standards all over the world are allowing the standards of Fair Value Accounting (FVA) for the purpose of financial reporting. The International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) can be considered as one of them allowing FVA for the accounting treatment of non-current assets of the companies (Graham, Carmichael Carmichael, 2012). It needs to be mentioned that IFRS have agreed on the application of FVA for ascertaining the value of their non-current assets without involving the market value of them over Historical Cost Accounting (HCA). While the main aim of the development of financial statements is to reflect the reality of financial situation, variation in the accounting opinion can be seen under the process of FVA and HCA. The main aim of this report is to ascertain whether FVA should permanently replace HCA for the valuation of non-current assets. For the purpose of this report, the 2017 Annual Report of Wesfarners is taken into consideration. All the details related with the implementation of fair value measurement can be seen in the IFRS Framework 13 Fair Value Measurement. According to this standard, all the business entities under Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) need to use fair value measurement for the measurement of the fair value of all of their assets including non-current assets. According to this standard, the definition of faire value can be provided based on an exit price notion and used the hierarchy of fair value that results in market based measurement rather than any entity specific measurement (iasplus.com, 2018). In this aspect, IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operation states the process of accounting treatment of non-current assets. According to this standard, assets held for sales are not depreciable and they are required to be valued on the basis of fair value less costs to sell. Moreover, they are required to be presented separately in the financial statements. In addit ion, there is a need for separate disclosure for all these non-current assets (iasplus.com, 2018). Fair Value vs. Historical Cost Accounting There are major differences between FVA and HCA. It can be seen that FVA is regarded as the improvement of HCA as the concept of FVA has been developed to overcome the drawbacks of HCA (Chircop Novotny-Farkas, 2016). Under the process of HCA, the initial price paid at the time of purchasing any asset or liability only matters. The prices of the assets and the liabilities in the balance sheet cannot include any fluctuations of price. However, difference can be seen in case of FVA. FVA takes into account all the changes in the value of assets and liabilities from time to time basis. Thus, it needs to be mentioned that the value of the assets and liabilities reflect the correct market value under the process of FVA (Ayres, Huang Myring, 2017). From the above, it can be seen that the process of FVA takes into account the volatility in the price of assets and liabilities where HCA does not consider this volatile in price. This volatility make FVA superior to HCA as it provides the finan cial results of the companies that are not based on possible subjective valuation or any other method (Ellul et al., 2015). It needs to be mentioned that the process of FVA has some major advantages. At the same time, there are also some major limitations of FVA. They are discussed below: Benefits The use of FVA helps in providing the accurate valuation of the assets and liabilities of the business organizations. FVA takes into account the increases and decreases in the value of assets and liabilities. It helps in providing the correct financial position of the company (Laux, 2016). Under the process of FVA, there is less possibility of doing manipulation with the accounting data. Under FVA, the tracking of sales price is done based on the actual or estimated value that helps in providing the measurement of true income (Zack, 2012). FVA helps in tracking the value of all types of assets where the valuation of assets and liabilities is not always correct in case of HCA. For this reason, accountants all over the world prefer the application of FVA (Wang Zhang, 2017). FVA helps the companies by allowing the process of asset reduction within the market. This particular aspect helps the companies in surviving in difficult economy (Bick, Orlova Sun, 2017). Limitations Under the process of FVA, large fluctuations in the value of assets can be seen many time in the year and this changes are required to be recorded in the financial statements. This particular aspect affects the financial position of the companies (lorian Marcel Nu, 2015). There are investors for the companies who do not notice that the company is using FVA. This particular aspects create major dissatisfaction among the investors as they can only seen the reduction in the net income. It can be considered as another limitation of FVA (Liao et al., 2013). Although it is crucial to consider the present value of the assets and liabilities, it is necessary to have the historical record for measuring the accuracy. The loss of historical aspect under FVA can be considered as a major limitation of FVA (Zyla, 2013). Thus, from the above discussion, it can be seen that FVA has both benefits and limitations and the accountants are required to consider all of these aspects while using FVA. Effects on Balance Sheet As per the earlier discussion, Wesfarmers Limited is considered for measuring the superiority of FVA over HCA. From the 2017 Annual Report of Wesfarners, it can be seen that there are some major items under non-current assets. They are shown below: The first non-current asset is investments in associates and joint venture. From financial note 18, page no. 127, it can be seen that the company measures and recognizes their investments in the balance sheet at the cost price after adding the post-acquisition changes. It can be found in IAS 1(54) (e) of IFRS statements. This calculation considers all the recent changes in the investments under FVA. The next non-current assets are Deferred Assets. In the calculation of deferred tax assets, the company follow the IFRS standard of IAS 1 (54) (o), (56). According to this standard, the recognition of this asset is done in the date of balance sheet. It implies that the company consider all the changes in the value of deferred tax assets while it would not be possible in case of HCA (wesfarmers.com.au, pg no: 106). The next non-current asset is property. According to IFRS IAS 1 (54) (a), while measuring the cost of plant, Wesfarmers considers all the necessary changes in the value like depreciation, impairment, cost of replacing parts and others. It implies the adoption of FVA by the company (wesfarmers.com.au, pg no: 109). The next non-current asset is Plant and equipment. Same like property, Wesfarmers use IFRS standard IAS 1 (54) (a) for the valuation of their plant and equipment. In this process, the company considers all the necessary changes in the value of this asset while reporting them in the balance sheet. It indicates the adoption of FVA by the company (wesfarmers.com.au, pg no: 109). The next non-current asset of Wesfarmers is Goodwill. In the financial note no. 8, it is clearly stated that the company uses FVA for the measurement and reporting of their goodwill. In this context, the company follows the IFRS principle of IAS 1 (54) (c). It implies that the company takes into consideration all the current changes in goodwill (wesfarmers.com.au, pg no: 110). The next items are Intangible assets other than Goodwill. It needs to be mentioned that the company uses the same standard for these assets (wesfarmers.com.au, pg no: 110). The next non-current asset of the company is Derivatives. As per the financial note no. 16, it can be seen that the company uses fair value method for valuation of their derivatives on the date of their contracts and the company re-measures them on the basis of fair value. For this reason, the company follows the standards of IAS 1 (54) (d) and IFRS7 (8) (a). It needs to be mentioned that the company also use FVA in case of the measurement and valuation of hedging instruments. It needs to be mentioned that the values in the amounts of balance sheet have major impact on the financial position of the business organizations as the investor largely reply on the figures of balance sheet for determining the credit worthiness of the company (Graham, Carmichael Carmichael, 2012). For this reason, the financial statements including balance sheet need to reflect the actual financial position of the companies. The same aspect is also applicable for the financial statements of Wesfarmers. The above discussion denotes that the company has complied with the regulations of IFRS in order to follow the principles of FVA. However, in case Wesfarmers used HCA, there would be significant difference in the values of non-current assets. Due to not taking into consideration the recent changes in the values of assets under HCA, the value of the assets did not express the actual financial position of the company and it would mislead the investors in the investment decision-making process. Conclusion The selection of appropriate accounting method is an important factor for the success of the whole organization. In this process, business organizations are required to consider both the advantages and disadvantages of the accounting methods. From the above discussion, it can be seen that IFRS has provided all the details related to the use of FVA for the ASX listed companies. According to the above discussion, it can be observed that the process of FVA has both advantages and disadvantages, but the portion of advantages is more than the portion of disadvantages as compared to HCA. In case of Wesfarmers, the above discussion indicates that the company uses FVA method for the valuation and presentation of their non-current assets in the financial statements. The above discussion shows that in case of the adoption of HC instead of FVA, there would be major differences in the values of non-current assets; and this would lead to the miss-presentation of the financial position of Wesfarme rs. This whole process would mislead the investors in determining the actual financial position of the company. Thus, on the basis of the whole discussion, it can be concluded that FVA should permanently replace FVA as the accounting process of the companies. References 2017 Annual Report. (2018).Wesfarmers.com.au. Retrieved 27 March 2018, from https://www.wesfarmers.com.au/docs/default-source/default-document-library/2017-annual-report.pdf?sfvrsn=0 Ayres, Huang, Myring. (2017). Fair value accounting and analyst forecast accuracy.Advances in Accounting,37, 58-70. Bick, Orlova, Sun. (2017). Fair value accounting and corporate cash holdings.Advances in Accounting,Advances in Accounting. Chircop, Novotny-Farkas. (2016). The economic consequences of extending the use of fair value accounting in regulatory capital calculations.Journal of Accounting and Economics,62(2-3), 183-203. Ellul, A., Jotikasthira, C., Lundblad, C., Wang, Y. (2015). Is Historical Cost Accounting a Panacea? Market Stress, Incentive Distortions, and Gains Trading.Journal of Finance,70(6), 2489-2538. Graham, Carmichael, Carmichael, D. R. (2012).Financial accounting and general topics(12th ed., Accountants' handbook ; v. 1). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley Sons. IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement. (2018).Iasplus.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018, from https://www.iasplus.com/en/standards/ifrs/if IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations. (2018).Iasplus.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018, from https://www.iasplus.com/en/standards/ifrs/if Laux, C. (2016). The economic consequences of extending the use of fair value accounting in regulatory capital calculations: A discussion.Journal of Accounting and Economics,62(2-3), 204-208. Liao, Kang, Morris, Tang. (2013). Information asymmetry of fair value accounting during the financial crisis.Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics,9(2), 221-23 lorian Marcel Nu. (2015). FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING CRISIS DEBATE A REVIEW.Analele Universitii Constantin Brncu?i Din Trgu Jiu : Seria Economie,2(1), 136-139 Wang, Zhang. (2017). Fair value accounting and corporate debt structure.Advances in Accounting,37, 46-57. Zack, G. (2012). Fair Value Accounting. InFinancial Statement Fraud(pp. 117-128). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley Sons. Zyla, M. (2013).Fair value measurement practical guidance and implementation(2nd ed., Wiley Corporate FA). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.